I'm trying to get text using selenium web driver, I don't want to use XPath because the Id changes every time I launch the web page. Here, the classname of the element you're talking about should come in place of: abc And whatever the visible text is in that element that will be fetched by getText function and it will be stored in variable text.
Just go ahead and use a print statement to display whatever is stored in that variable. For python you have to postfix. Hello Neelam, to navigate to a web Hello Umesh, if you want to get The better way to handle this element In order to use IE Driver you Example: print browser. I found that my MIME file type Already have an account? Sign in. Home Community Categories Selenium Get text using selenium web driver in python. Get text using selenium web driver in python.
Don't follow that. I think that sounds right. I'm not a punter in Python myself, but going by the syntax and logic, it could work. Do let us know otherwise. Hey zash, you can use the following: driver.
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Any other ways to get the element like matching the text value? Because the list elements order is dynamic, so the current position of the element "Users" li might get change later.
So you can use something like below code to click on dynamic list items here, users. To avoid the lijust use this XPath. It will still work, even if one of the li elements swap their locations in the html file. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Webdriver: How to find the element using text in xpath? Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 6 months ago.
Active 10 months ago. Viewed 82k times. Bence Kaulics 3 3 silver badges 17 17 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. MKay MKay 1 1 silver badge 7 7 bronze badges. I find it hilarious that the accepted answer shows how to do it with a CSS locator when the OP explicitly asked for an XPath solution and there are valid XPath answers It failed to pick element by using this. Bharat Mane 6, 8 8 gold badges 33 33 silver badges 62 62 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google.
Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog.There are various strategies to locate elements in a page. You can use the most appropriate one for your case. Selenium provides the following methods to locate elements in a page:. Apart from the public methods given above, there are two private methods which might be useful with locators in page objects. Use this when you know id attribute of an element.
With this strategy, the first element with the id attribute value matching the location will be returned. If no element has a matching id attribute, a NoSuchElementException will be raised. Use this when you know name attribute of an element. With this strategy, the first element with the name attribute value matching the location will be returned. If no element has a matching name attribute, a NoSuchElementException will be raised.
XPath is the language used for locating nodes in an XML document. XPath extends beyond as well as supporting the simple methods of locating by id or name attributes, and opens up all sorts of new possibilities such as locating the third checkbox on the page. You can use XPath to either locate the element in absolute terms not advisedor relative to an element that does have an id or name attribute. XPath locators can also be used to specify elements via attributes other than id and name.
Absolute XPaths contain the location of all elements from the root html and as a result are likely to fail with only the slightest adjustment to the application. By finding a nearby element with an id or name attribute ideally a parent element you can locate your target element based on the relationship. This is much less likely to change and can make your tests more robust. These examples cover some basics, but in order to learn more, the following references are recommended:.
There are also a couple of very useful Add-ons that can assist in discovering the XPath of an element:. Use this when you know link text used within an anchor tag. With this strategy, the first element with the link text value matching the location will be returned.In this post, we will present a way to auto-generate robust and short XPaths for the two most common HTML elements automation interacts with — buttons and input elements.
The foundation for robust GUI automated checks is writing good element locators. Generating XPaths manually is a routine and time-consuming task.
As part of simplifying our test writing process, we came up with a thought to write a utility script which will identify and auto-generate robust and simple XPaths. We started off with generating XPaths for Input and Button fields of a webpage using the general locators like id, name, class etc. The Python program in this post will demonstrate how to create XPath expressions automatically for input and button tags. Whenever there is a requirement to automate a webpage, the tester can simply run this script which would generate a bunch of XPaths without any human intervention.
Most of us rely on extracting the XPaths from browser plugins or tools. These tools have got limitations. Other smarter tools seem to have trouble producing unique XPaths in anything but the simplest conditions.
Generally, we locate the elements using their unique attributes but some elements do not have unique attributes. Locating such elements is difficult because the XPath generated will have multiple matching elements. It is important to consider the following points while choosing an XPath.
A good locator is:.
We made an effort to write a script which will auto-generate XPaths for Input and Button elements in the webpage and also check for the uniqueness of the generated XPath. This will save the automation time and effort. In the coming sections, we will be talking about below items:. First, we need to import all the libraries that we are going to use.
Next for each element we will loop over the attribute lists and check for the attribute existence and then guess the XPath. Please note that we have declared the attribute lists based on the order of importance of attribute occurrence. XPath should have only one candidate element which means the XPath should output one and only one element. In this way we are making sure that the XPath is unique. We shall discuss in detail about these methods in below sections. To handle Unicode errors due to foreign Unicode characters we used encode and join functions.
There will be situations, where you may not able to use any HTML property rather than text present in the element. We tested this Utility with almost 50 different pages which have multiple input and button fields. We came across few issues which we figured and fixed.The Element type is a flexible container object, designed to store hierarchical data structures in memory.
The type can be described as a cross between a list and a dictionary. The xml. ElementTree module is not secure against maliciously constructed data. If you need to parse untrusted or unauthenticated data see XML vulnerabilities. To create an element instance, use the Element constructor or the SubElement factory function. A C implementation of this API is available as xml. Changed in version 2. For more information, see Introducing ElementTree 1.
This is a short tutorial for using xml. ElementTree ET in short. The goal is to demonstrate some of the building blocks and basic concepts of the module. XML is an inherently hierarchical data format, and the most natural way to represent it is with a tree.
ET has two classes for this purpose - ElementTree represents the whole XML document as a tree, and Element represents a single node in this tree. Interactions with a single XML element and its sub-elements are done on the Element level.
Other parsing functions may create an ElementTree. Check the documentation to be sure. As an Elementroot has a tag and a dictionary of attributes:. Element has some useful methods that help iterate recursively over all the sub-tree below it its children, their children, and so on. For example, Element.
More sophisticated specification of which elements to look for is possible by using XPath.
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ElementTree provides a simple way to build XML documents and write them to files. The ElementTree. Once created, an Element object may be manipulated by directly changing its fields such as Element. We can remove elements using Element. The SubElement function also provides a convenient way to create new sub-elements for a given element:. Also, if there is a default namespacethat full URI gets prepended to all of the non-prefixed tags. One way to search and explore this XML example is to manually add the URI to every tag or attribute in the xpath of a find or findall :.
A better way to search the namespaced XML example is to create a dictionary with your own prefixes and use those in the search functions:. This module provides limited support for XPath expressions for locating elements in a tree. The goal is to support a small subset of the abbreviated syntax; a full XPath engine is outside the scope of the module.
Selects all child elements with the given tag. Selects all child elements. Selects the current node. Selects all subelements, on all levels beneath the current element.I decided to write a short post about how I use Python and XPath to extract web content.
I do this often to build research data sets. This post was inspired by another blog post: Luciano Mammino — Extracting data from Wikipedia using curl, grep, cut and other shell commands. Once I discovered using XPath in Python, my online data collection for research became a whole lot easier!
You can create an XPath query to find specific tables, reference specific rows, or even find cells of a table with certain attributes.
We extract the HTML document elements and identify our medalists using the table structure on the page. The first bit of Python code just pulls in the web page as a string, and creates an XML tree out of it, so we can use the data with XPath:. Now we need to know what to extract. This will give you information on how to reference that very specific element. Using debug mode in PyCharm we can insert breakpoints and evaluate expressions.
This is really handy when writing parsers and scrapers. Finally we insert our tested XPath into our code, and the rest is straight forward Python.
We can retrieve, manipulate and calculate on any of the list content. The Python and XPath method is very portable. It helped me significantly in my data collection for research. Use an IDE! Share this: Facebook.As an lxml specific extension, these classes also provide an xpath method that supports expressions in the complete XPath syntax, as well as custom extension functions. See the performance comparison to learn when to use which. Their semantics when used on Elements and ElementTrees are the same as for the xpath method described here.
For ElementTree, the xpath method performs a global XPath query against the document if absolute or against the root node if relative :. When xpath is used on an Element, the XPath expression is evaluated against the element if relative or against the root tree if absolute :.
If your XPath expression uses namespace prefixes, you must define them in a prefix mapping. To this end, pass a dictionary to the namespaces keyword argument that maps the namespace prefixes used in the XPath expression to namespace URIs:.
The prefixes you choose here are not linked to the prefixes used inside the XML document. The document may define whatever prefixes it likes, including the empty prefix, without breaking the above code. Note that XPath does not have a notion of a default namespace.
The empty prefix is therefore undefined for XPath and cannot be used in namespace prefix mappings. There is also an optional extensions argument which is used to define custom extension functions in Python that are local to this evaluation.
The namespace prefixes that they use in the XPath expression must also be defined in the namespace prefix mapping. XPath string results are 'smart' in that they provide a getparent method that knows their origin:. Note that getparent may not always return an Element.
For example, the XPath functions string and concat will construct strings that do not have an origin. For them, getparent will return None. There are certain cases where the smart string behaviour is undesirable. For example, it means that the tree will be kept alive by the string, which may have a considerable memory impact in the case that the string value is the only thing in the tree that is actually of interest.
ElementTree objects have a method getpath elementwhich returns a structural, absolute XPath expression to find that element:. The XPath class compiles an XPath expression into a callable function:.
The compilation takes as much time as in the xpath method, but it is done only once per class instantiation. This makes it especially efficient for repeated evaluation of the same XPath expression. Just like the xpath method, the XPath class supports XPath variables:. This supports very efficient evaluation of modified versions of an XPath expression, as compilation is still only required once.
You can disable this with the boolean keyword argument regexp which defaults to True. They are automatically selected if you use the XPathEvaluator helper for instantiation:. This class provides efficient support for evaluating different XPath expressions on the same Element or ElementTree. The other major difference regards the capabilities of both path languages.
Where XPath supports various sophisticated ways of restricting the result set through functions and boolean expressions, ElementPath only supports pure path traversal without nesting or further conditions. So, while the ElementPath syntax is self-contained and therefore easier to write and handle, XPath is much more powerful and expressive.